Homeonline collegescriminal justice degrees Online Criminal Justice Degrees Many online schools offer criminal justice degrees programs that focus on pressing issues. Like guns, gangs, terrorism and trafficking. These programs prep criminal justice pros to enforce laws, solve crimes and protect the nation. So, if you like to investigate, there’s no time like now to earn a criminal justice degree online. A degree in criminal justice studies crime, the law, and the courts system. It uses this info to make sense of why criminals act the way they do. And to inform policing styles, and corrections. You may find online programs in criminal justice at all levels. Bachelors, masters and PhD. At each of these levels you study the system of law as it applies to crime. At the bachelor’s level, a criminal justice degree is broad and basic. This helps you gain a solid grasp of the US justice system. As well as a handle on key issues. Like drugs, human trafficking and homeland security. Master’s in criminal justice programs go deeper. And aim to prep you for a manager role. So, the coursework often touch on how to lead, hire staff and budget. PhDs focus on research. They may be ideal for you if you want to set policy. As opposed to follow it. Bachelor’s in Criminal Justice Most schools award one of two degrees. A Bachelor of Arts (BA) or Bachelor of Science (BS) in criminal justice. Either a BA or BS may serve as the entry point for many careers in criminal justice. As such, most programs arm you with theories, tools and skills. Many online BSCJ programs also feature a choice of focus. Like cyber security, terrorism or emergency handling. If you study full time, earning an online bachelor’s degree may take four years. During this time, you may take part in an internship too. To get into any program, you need to meet your online school’s admission requirements. These do vary from one school to the next. Most colleges ask that you have at least a high school diploma or GED. They may also look at your GPA and SAT scores. Another thing that varies is tuition rate. The NCES found that it cost an average of $5,953 to earn a criminal justice bachelor’s. If you study in state. It tends to cost more ($24,100) at an out of state college. That said, many online schools and private sources offer scholarships. So, you can look into ways to reduce expenses. When looking into online learning, you might check school accreditation. Accredited schools may enable transfer students to use their credits. So, let’s say you have an associate degree, some % of your credits may transfer over to bachelor’s degree programs. You may have to request info with the school to learn more. Also, many accredited online colleges take part in state and federal financial aid. Eligible students often fill out a FAFSA to find out. And unlike when you apply to a college, there is no application fee to find out if you qualify. The form is available from the U.S. Department of Education. Master’s in Criminal Justice Most online schools award a Master of Science (MS) or MBA in criminal justice. These are professional degrees. And aim to nurture skills for career advancement in the criminal justice field. As such, a Master’s in CJ may stress the managerial side of justice administration. Things like basic leadership, analysis and decision skills. Online students may also study the causes of crime through research. Then learn how to interpret this data. And to use it to assess and form crime control policy and strategy. While covering core topics in social sciences, you may also focus on an area in more detail. Fraud investigation and criminology are a few. Many programs cover these areas in about 30 to 36 credit hours. This may take from 18 months to 2 years if you take a full course load. To apply into an online MSCJ program you need a bachelor’s. You must also meet any school standards. These include GPA and GRE scores in some cases. References, goals and job experience too. As with admissions, tuition varies too. Recent data points to an average cost of $11,617 if you study at a public college. PhD in Criminal Justice A PhD in criminal justice is a research degree. It is the highest level of degree in this field. Many people enroll in a PhD for one of two reasons. To teach and to research. About 26% of criminal justice professors have a doctorate. Their classes cover many areas. Including defensive policing, digital forensics and criminal law. As educators, PhD holders often continue to research and publish. Their valuable insights may inform public policy, law / public administration and more. To this end, PhD classes aim to help you gain quality research skills. Like how to form a query, gather data, make sense of findings and present them. This tends to mean lots of analysis and research methods topics. Other ones may cover global issues. Violent crimes, drug trafficking and terrorism are a few. Plus, how to respond through a cohesive strategy. Applicants to most online PhD in CJ programs must have a master’s degree. And may need a GPA of at least 3.0. But some schools may allow you to sub a J.D. degree and a background in criminal justice for the master’s. It is less common to enter with direct from undergraduate programs. Going for a PhD online, you may still need to visit your campus. These brief residencies help you learn from mentors and student teach. With all these moving parts, the time it takes to earn a PhD varies. Many programs include between 40 and 60 credits. So, from two to five years of full time study. There may be few start dates if the program follows a cohort model. This model means you enter as one group. Also, when preparing to apply, check into faculty members’ ongoing projects. If you find one that fits your own goals, it may help your application shine. What can I do with an Online Criminal Justice Degree? Criminal justice majors may be a pathway for many jobs. Some are current roles in corrections, enforcement and investigation. Others are in emerging areas. Like cyber security, counter terrorism and forensics. These are a few career opportunities known to criminal justice professionals. For each criminal justice career, you need certain skills and education. In most cases though, entry level roles call for a bachelor’s. So, if you want to solve crimes or enforce the law you may need one. A grad degree (master’s or PhD) may help you land an admin role. This includes jobs where you are in charge of people, policies, finance and tactics. Many people also use their knowledge to teach, consult and research. 1. Private Detectives Private detectives do paid work for firms and clients. They look into unlawful acts and infractions. And may run background checks, obtain evidence for child custody and expose fraud. Doing this work may call for an associate or bachelor’s in criminal justice. It may also be mandatory to go through police academy training. 2. FBI Agent An FBI agent works for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. These special agents look into alleged and suspected violations of laws. Federal, state and local. If cracking cases interests you, this line of work calls for a bachelor’s. You may also need training from this criminal justice organization. 3. Crime Scene Investigators Crime scene investigators often have two degrees. A bachelor’s in a natural science and master’s in forensic science. These pros collect, ID and analyze all kinds of evidence. From DNA to digital records. As such, they often play a key role in solving crimes. 4. Corrections Managers Corrections managers are supervisors. They work on the front lines to keep order, discipline, and security. Both with regard to correctional officers and inmates. Many have a bachelor’s and / or academy training. 5. Emergency Management Directors Emergency managers plan and prep for crises of all types. Including natural disasters, bomb threats and disease outbreaks. These roles call for a level head, strong decision skills and a bachelor’s to start out. 6. Forensic Psychologists Forensic psychs study the mind and actions of criminals. Then apply these skills within the legal and criminal justice system. Often this means working with attorneys or judges. And usually calls for a PhD or PsyD degree. Is an Online Degree in Criminal Justice worth it? There are about 1.08 million people working in criminal justice. Many are in law enforcing admin and other evolving roles. Expertise in CJ often involves an ability to solve complex problems. This skill is useful across many industries with high growth and salary potential. Salaries across these industries average about $62,487 per year. But this figure is going up by 2.05%. Some jobs pay up to 6 figures too. It is natural to wonder what roles will be around when you graduate. You may have heard that crime rates in some areas are falling. But crime is still a constant. And the need for people trained in public safety is on the rise. Reports also say that most crimes go unreported. And, that most reported crimes go unsolved. So it is no surprise then that the need for investigators is rising by 8% to 2028. For detectives and police officers, the outlook is about 5% more jobs to 2028. There is also a demand for people who work the science side of crime, or forensics. The field expects competition and a 14% increase in jobs. So, experts say having a master’s degree may help. Then there is the issue of cyber security. Cyber attacks are alarming high. Yet there are not enough skilled info sec pros to combat them. As a result, demand is off the charts. If you have a strong tech side, the field is growing by 32%, again to 2028. And salaries can range from $56,750 to over $156,580. Criminal Justice Degree Jobs & Salary OccupationAverage SalaryJobsPolice Officers and Detectives$65,170808,700Correctional Officers and Bailiffs$45,300453,900Private Detectives and Investigators$50,51033,000Forensic Science Technicians$59,15016,700 Top States for Jobs as a Detective and Criminal Investigator State Jobs Annual Mean Wage TX 16,810 $79,490 CA 11,810 $107,760 NY 9,010 $92,600 FL 6,890 $76,220 AZ 5,690 $83,650 What classes will I take with an Online Criminal Justice Degree? The online courses you take in an online CJ degree program depend on two things. Any added focal point and your degree level. Bachelor’s Degree Courses Most online bachelor’s programs cover main themes in criminal justice. One relates to laws and the legal system. This means enforcement as well as the process of writing and legislating law. Other aspects focus on corrections. This topic may span other subjects. Like the courts and juvenile justice. Points of view on rehab too. These are some classes you may take. Criminal Law Procedure Courses in procedure look at the history and nature of this branch of law. They analyze the general nature of crime, common law and modern statutory criminal codes. Students will learn how to analyze and brief criminal cases and identify and discuss criminal issues. Current Issues in Criminal Justice Topics discussed in this course include prison violence, gangs, changes in society and their impact on correction and the death penalty. A student taking this course will examine the impact of these problems and look at their effect on the criminal justice system. Criminal Investigation A CI course will introduce students to the basics. Strategies for interviews, evidence collection and CSI provide students with a basis on how to manage an investigation. Introduction to Law Enforcement This course will introduce students to policing and show the ways it has changed over time and also goes over topics like recruiting and use of force. The course is designed to help students gain a working knowledge of the world of policing. And while studying theory, you may also learn to apply it. So, online criminal justice students should expect some type of capstone project. Graduate Degree Courses Online master’s in CJ programs often revolve around core topics. Criminal actions, ethics and decision making, and theories of crime and justice. You may also take these classes. Police and Society Police and society courses examine the function of police in society and the problems that arise between citizens and police. Students will learn the ways in which social changes impact enforcement of the law. Data Analysis in Criminal Justice These courses examine the various types of data used in criminal justice and the fundamentals of statistics and analysis. The course provides students with the best ways to analyze data, how to collect data and how to interpret findings. Forensics Science and Psychological Profiling Many masters students may wish to take this course. It aims to teach about the basics of forensic science and tech. It may offer some insight into psychological profiling. Many students will learn how to apply various methods to learn about a case. They may go on to use these in the investigation process. An understanding of scientific methods applicable is often a component here. Survey of Justice and Security This type of course is often a survey that looks at various areas of the city. It may include the courts or private security. It may study policing. Also, it may discuss how each of these various branches work with each other. This is often a type of discussion course where ethics are brought up. Insight into the challenges in relationships may also be discussed here. Many programs also train you in professional data analysis methods. And, usually allow you to choose a focal point. One that lines up with your career path. Most online PhD – CJ programs include core work in criminal justice theory. These courses show how to apply theory. Both to enforcement and CI. Extra courses take a close look at certain sides of the justice system. Like law, civil rights and the role of police in society. Since research plays a key role at this level, many other courses prep you to do it. 7 Common Concentrations in Criminal Justice There are many ways to make an online CJ degree more personal. Here are a few common anchor points to look for when searching for a program. 1. White Collar Crime An area that comes with its own laws, white collar crime studies fraud. As such a main focal point is forensic accounting. You may also study prosecution and sentencing. 2. Corrections This area is about the practices that rehab and treat offenders. Studying it may help you grasp policy and factors that influence criminal acts. 3. Crime Scene Investigation In this area, you may take courses in chemistry and biology. Along with forensics, key areas look at ways to get and preserve evidence. 4. Criminal Psychology A focus in this area looks at criminal acts. And may do so through the lens of mental health and counseling. You may also study violence and victimology. 5. Criminology Here you study the causes, consequences and costs of crime. Still, the aim is to thwart crime as it is with CJ as a whole. 6. Criminal Justice (General) CJ refers to the systems in place that deal with crime. For instance, how to detect it, detain and deal with criminals. 7. Homeland / National Security Also called national security, it covers more than terrorism. You also study natural and man made threats to society. Plus, a fair bit on policies and plans at all levels of gov’t. How long does it take to get an Online Criminal Justice Degree? How long it takes to earn a criminal justice degree online depend on two things. The level and your course load. Most bachelors in CJ programs take a full time student four years. But if you have transfer credits it may take fewer. Master’s in CJ programs range from 18 months to 2 years. Some schools also offer part time formats if you need extra time. For a PhD or Doctor of CJ, expect it to take from 2 to 5 years. But many students need more time to finish their dissertation. University Level of Degree # of Credits Required Starts Per Year Minimum Months to Complete University of Central Florida Bachelors 120 3 48 Southern New Hampshire University Bachelors 120 6 48 Xavier University Masters 36 6 12 California State-Long Beach Masters 36 3 24 Michigan State University Masters 30 3 18 Capella University PhD 96QC Multiple 36 Walden University PhD 78 Multiple 30 Northcentral University PhD 54 Weekly 45 Scholarships for Criminal Justice Majors One way to make a degree in criminal justice more affordable is to secure a scholarship. This type of financial aid may be available at the school you plan to attend. But other sources also grant these awards for many eligible students. Criminal Justice Scholarship Crimcheck.com offers this annual scholarship of $500. It is open to high school seniors or students now enrolled in college. And who are going for a degree in the criminal justice field. Applicants need a GPA of 3.0 or higher and must write a (winning) essay. Deadline: August 1 Attorneys.org Legal Scholarship – 2020 For high school, college and graduate students drawn to a career in law, criminal justice or forensics. Applicants must submit a 500 word essay that explains their interest in one of these fields to have a chance at the $1,000 award. Deadline: December 11 Kush Arora Federal Justice Reform Scholarship Price Benowitz LLP offers this $500 award. It is open to undergraduate, graduate, and law school students as well as incoming college freshmen. Applicants must attend an accredited school in the United States and need a 3.0 GPA or above. To apply one must write a 1,000 word essay, resume and transcripts. The essay must provide a well reasoned argument about a CJ policy (your choice). Is it unjust and requires reform or is just and should stay as is. Deadline: December 31 Venardi Zurada LLP 2020 Scholarship MileMark Media offers this $3,000 scholarship. It is open to high school, college or graduate students. Applicants must show an interest in going for a career in criminal justice, law or forensics. A 3.0 GPA and a 500 word essay is also necessary. The essay has to detail why you are choosing your career path. Deadline: December 31 AFCEA STEM Majors Scholarship For U.S. college sophomores, juniors and grad students who are majoring in a STEM field relevant to the mission of AFCEA. Areas like cyber security, intelligence, and homeland security. Applicants must also meet a GPA benchmark of 3.0 (undergrad) and 3.5 (grad). Online students who meet these criteria may also apply. The number of winners vary but the total dollars awarded is $5,000. Deadline: April 12 15 Online Criminal Justice Degrees We have ranked our top 15 schools based on the number of graduates from the program in 2019. Our process looks at 2019 data from the NCES. And, it may help you narrow your search down. CUNY John Jay College of Criminal JusticeUniversity of Phoenix ArizonaColorado Technical UniversityUniversity of Texas Rio Grande ValleyArizona State UniversityWestern Illinois University National University CollegeUniversity of Massachusetts LowellUniversity of New HavenColumbia CollegeGrantham University University of Louisville Park University Keiser University Eastern Kentucky University FIND AN ONLINE CRIMINAL JUSTICE DEGREE Let’s take a closer look at the online criminal justice degrees that these 15 schools have to offer. 1 John Jay College of Criminal Justice Bachelor of Science in Security Management Online John Jay Online offers a 39 credit bachelor completion program. It is for those who already have transfer credits from an associate degree. The program focuses on the analysis of security risks. And the administration of safety services for public and private sectors. There are six core courses as well as a choice of electives and an internship. Sample courses include: Methods of SecurityPrivate Security and the LawIntro to Security Tuition and Fees: Undergrad $7,470 / $15,420Grad $11,532 / $20,962 Avg Grants & Scholarship Aid:$8,267 Average Net Price:$3,814 More Degree Programs: MPA in Inspection and OversightMA in International Crime and JusticeMS in Emergency Management MA in Criminal JusticeMS in Security Management 2 University of Phoenix Arizona Bachelor of Science in Criminal Justice Administration Online UOPX offers a 120 credit program. It aims to grow skills needed in administrative areas in law enforcement, courts and corrections. Courses are 5 weeks long and cover search, seizure, pretrial and trial processes. You may also learn the tactics to fight organized crime. If you have military or law enforcer training, you may be able to swap experience for up to 30 credits to bring costs down. Sample Courses include: Criminology Interagency CommunicationIntro to Policy Theory Tuition and Fees: Undergrad $9,552Grad $16,752Special rates available for military students. Avg Grants & Scholarship Aid:$4,010 Average Net Price:$12,767 More Degree Programs: BS in Security ManagementBS in Correctional Program Support Services MS in Administration of Justice and SecurityMPA 3 Colorado Technical University Bachelor of Science in Criminal justice Online CTU’s program entails 182 quarter credits and comes with an option called CTU Fast Track™. It focuses on communication, technical and professional areas. The core program thus covers a broad base. Including corrections, admin, criminological theory and law. You also choose electives from CJ with options like fraud and child abuse. Sample classes include: Juvenile DelinquencyIntro to Homeland Security Interview and Interrogation Tuition and Fees: Undergrad $12,529Grad $14,321Special rates available for military students. Avg Grants & Scholarship Aid:$5,039 Average Net Price:$16,260 More Degree Programs: MS in Criminal Justice (Homeland Sec.)Doctor of Management – Homeland Sec. Doctor of Computer Science – Cyber Security and Info Assurance 4 University of Texas Rio Grande Valley Bachelor of Science in Criminal Justice Online UT Rio Grande offers a 102 credit completion program which may take as few as 3 years to complete. It targets the student who has their first two years of undergrad courses already done. The classes still cover a range of CJ topics. Crime causation, criminal justice issues, juvenile justice, law enforcement, courts, corrections, and law. Sample courses include: Police Systems and PracticesCourt Systems CJ Research Methods Tuition and Fees: Undergrad $8,132 / $18,260Grad $7,128 / $14,274 Avg Grants & Scholarship Aid:$7,866 Average Net Price:$4,654 More Degree Programs: MS in Criminal Justice 5 Arizona State University Bachelor of Science in Criminology and Criminal Justice Online ASU’s 120 credit program focuses of the impact of crime and tactics to reduce it. You therefore study the causes of crime and the role of CJ agencies. At the same time, you may lear about behavioral science, psychology and logic. These areas may help you investigate crime scenes and compose reports. Courses may include: Courts and SentencingIntro to Policing CJ Crime Control Policies Tuition and Fees: Undergrad $11,388 / $29,428Grad $12,608 / $27,048Special rates available for military students. Avg Grants & Scholarship Aid:$10,651 Average Net Price:$13,764 More Degree Programs: MA in Criminal JusticeMA in Emergency Mgmt. and Homeland Sec. MLS Criminal Law 6 Western Illinois University Bachelor of Science in Law Enforcement and Justice Administration Online WIU’s program entails 120 credits. It covers the basic aspects of the CJ system. Through LEJA classes, you may come to know how to apply (criminal) law and procedure in the U.S. Apart from online learning, you may take part in a full academic semester internship. The school reports over 1,300 partners for these practical experiences. Classes may include: Security MethodsCSIWriting in LEJA Tuition and Fees: Undergrad $13,256Grad $12,608 / $27,048Special rates available for military students. Avg Grants & Scholarship Aid:$8,773 Average Net Price:$11,803 More Degree Programs: BS in Fire Protection Services BS in Emergency Mgmt. MA in Public Safety Administration 7 National University College Bachelor of Science in Criminal Justice Administration Online NU offers a 120 credit program which features 4 week classes. It covers a range of CJ topics. Civil and criminal investigations. Also, court systems, law and forensic science. You also work to complete a supervised senior project as well. And, may choose electives like addictive disorders, legal studies or IT. Sample courses include: CriminologyInvestigationCJ Management Tuition and Fees: Undergrad $8,208Grad $7,296Special rates available for military students. Avg Grants & Scholarship Aid:$6,282 Average Net Price:$23,545 More Degree Programs: MS in Criminal JusticeMS in Forensic Science 8 University of Massachusetts Lowell Master of Arts in Criminal Justice Fully Online UMass offers a 33 credit program. It covers a broad range of classes. Sex crimes and crime profiling / analysis. Also law, terrorism and victimology. As you study these areas, the focus is on ways to lead. So there is also a section on crisis and emergency mgmt. Since you choose six electives, you may tailor your program to suit you. Classes may include: Admin of JusticeManaging Justice OrgsLaw and Public Policy Tuition and Fees: Undergrad $15,648 / $33,574Grad $15,161 / $26,984Special rates available for military students. Avg Grants & Scholarship Aid:$9,086 Average Net Price:$18,183 More Degree Programs: BS in Criminal JusticeMA in Security Studies / Homeland DefenseMA in Security Studies / Critical Infrastructure ProtectionMS in Cyber Security 9 University of New Haven Master of Science in Criminal Justice Online New Haven’s program is for current National Security, Law Enforcer, Corrections, Victim Advocacy workers and others. It entails 36 credits and focuses on leader skills in core classes. You also have a choice of focal areas. Leadership, police behavioral studies and crime analysis. The addition of electives allows you to tailor studies further. Classes may include: Admin of JusticeResearch for CJTheories of Criminal Behavior Tuition and Fees: Undergrad $40,440Grad $17,150Special rates available for military students. Avg Grants & Scholarship Aid:$19,911 Average Net Price:$34,353 More Degree Programs: BS in Homeland Security and Emergency Mgmt.MS in Emergency Mgmt. MS in Investigations 10 Columbia College Bachelor of Arts in Criminal Justice Online Columbia College is part of the FBINAA’s Academic Alliances. They offer a 120 credit program with two tracks. One is a Forensic Track. It entails classes in DNA, Toxicology, and a FBI Fingerprint Recognition and Comparison course. The second is a General Track. It dives into terrorism, homeland sec, emergency and disaster mgmt. You may also pursue a CJ leadership certificate along side. Sample classes: Criminal ProcedureCourtsCorrections Tuition and Fees: Undergrad $19,890Grad $8,574Special rates available for military students. Avg Grants & Scholarship Aid:$11,552 Average Net Price:$18,359 More Degree Programs: MA in Criminal Justice 11 Grantham University Bachelor of Arts in Criminal Justice Online Grantham’s 120 credit program comes with core topics and a choice of focal areas. The core studies CJ theory and crime as well as adult and juvenile corrections. One of the tracks is in homeland sec. It looks at areas like border security and terrorism. Another is computer forensics. In this area, you delve into cybercrime and the causes. Learning topics may include: Psychology and the LawIntro to CJ EthicsCorrection Systems Tuition and Fees: Undergrad $8,280Grad $4,800Special rates available for military students. Avg Grants & Scholarship Aid:$2,981 Average Net Price:$8,400 More Degree Programs: BS in Cyber Security 12 University of Louisville Bachelor of Science in Criminal Justice Online UL’s program aims to prep you with a working knowledge of CJ process (adult and juvenile). You also explore the issues involved in these areas to be able to link theory and policy. There are 121 credit hours with close to half in CJ. Classes may include: Criminal BehaviorCorrectionsCJ Law and Procedure Tuition and Fees: Undergrad $11,928 / $27,954Grad $13,196 / $27,311Special rates available for military students. Avg Grants & Scholarship Aid:$9,299 Average Net Price:$17,490 More Degree Programs: MS in Criminal Justice 13 Park University Bachelor of Science in Criminal Justice Administration Online Park offers a bachelor completion program. It entails 45 credits of core classes. There are three areas to tailor your studies. Law Enforcement, Corrections, and Security. Each covers a theme through intro topics. Classes may include: Intro to CorrectionsCJ InvestigationSecurity Admin Tuition and Fees: Undergrad $11,190Grad $6,012Special rates available for military students. Avg Grants & Scholarship Aid:$5,951 Average Net Price:$14,695 More Degree Programs: AS in Criminal JusticeBS in Criminal Justice (campus) 14 Keiser University Bachelor of Arts in Criminal Justice Online Keiser’s 120 credit program aims to prep you in many areas of the CJ system. You may study deviant behavior, forensics, victimology and more. These areas may help you learn how corrections and the justice system work with the laws and courts. There is also an emphasis on research, analysis and the future of the system. Sample courses include: Intro to Juvenile ProceduresCJ ManagementCriminal Evidence Tuition and Fees: Undergrad $21,008Grad $28,362Special rates available for military students. Avg Grants & Scholarship Aid:$7,015 Average Net Price:$30,437 More Degree Programs: BA in Financial Crime InvestigationBS in Forensic InvestigationsBA in Homeland Security MA in Criminal JusticePhD in Criminal Justice and Criminology 15 Eastern Kentucky University Bachelor of Science in Criminal Justice Online EKU’s program entails 120 credits though eligible students may transfer up to 90. It aims to promote respect, tolerance and sensitivity to justice issues. As such, the core topics get into areas such as policing, corrections, law, and social justice. You also choose electives to suit your interests. Classes may include: Crime and Delinquency CJ ResearchApplied CJ Analysis Tuition and Fees: Undergrad $9,876 / $19,948Grad $10,540 / $14,510 Avg Grants & Scholarship Aid:$7,539 Average Net Price:$14,674 More Degree Programs: MS in Justice, Policy and LeadershipMPA *Unemployment Earnings. Sources for school stats and data include the NCES and IPEDS.